Emission Factors for Motor bikes in Hanoi Essay

PRICE EMISSION FACTORS FOR MOTORBIKES

IN REAL-WORLD TRAFFIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF HANOI

TA HUONG THU, VOTRE ANH TUAN, NGHIEM TRUNG DUNG

Hanoi University of Technology

My spouse and i. INTRODUCTION

In respect to Nationwide State of Environment 3 years ago (Ministry of Natural Assets and Environment), the traffic activities induced 85% COMPANY and 95% VOCs of total exhausts in the whole country. Hanoi, with 1 . eight millions motor bikes (until Summer 2007), is currently facing with serious smog problem [1]. Estimating emission factors of automobiles to determine total exhausts and to provide emission inventories, has wonderful significance to get air quality supervision. In produced countries, simply by fully worked-out data system of traffic circumstances as well as vehicle types, not only emission factors databank, although also figures about vehicles, has been created completely through main methods such as: totaling up the amounts of vehicles and experimenting with particular types of vehicles about test beds following presented driving cycles; building release models; or on-road data-based measuring… Whilst doing emission inventories in Hanoi, government bodies taking responsibility for supervision and environmental experts include met a lot of problems due to the insufficient database. For the exhaust from motor bikes, research about emission elements is in a deep shortage. Until now, analysts only give attention to referring release factors from other countries (e. g. emission factors of USEPA). Specific data are not offered by this second because there will not be any dependable measurement about different vehicle types. The very fact shows that, together with the break out of the quantity of motorcycles in Hanoi, it is rather necessary and pressing to build a set of release factors for motorcycles. It needs to be certain for actual traffic conditions of the city. Due to the limit of time and expenditure, study scope is narrowed in old area of Hanoi (before expanding in August very first 2008). Additionally, it focuses on calculating emission elements of four selected air pollutants of motorcycles: HC (hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide), CARBON DIOXIDE (carbon dioxide) and NOx (nitrogen oxides).

II. EMISSION ELEMENTS AND APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING VEHICLE EMISSION ELEMENTS 2 . 1 . Concept

Relating to USEPA: An release factor is actually a tool which is used to calculate air pollution exhausts to the ambiance. It corelates the quantity of toxins released by a origin to some activity associated with all those emissions. Release factors usually are expressed while the pounds of pollutant emitted divided by a device weight, amount, distance, or perhaps duration of the game emitting the pollutant. Generally, these release factors are simply just averages of available data of acceptable top quality, and are generally presumed to be representative of long-term uses for all services in the supply category [2]. Specifically for motorcycles (and other mechanical vehicles), release factors happen to be expressed since grams of pollutant per traveling distance or grms of pollutant per liter fuel consumed. 2 . 2 . Methods used to estimate vehicle emission factors [3] -- Fuel-based types: Emission elements are normalized to energy consumption and expressed while grams of pollutant every gallon of gasoline used up instead of grms of pollutant per mile. In order to obtain an overall fleet-average emission component, average emission factors for subgroups of vehicles happen to be weighted by the fraction of total fuel used by every single vehicle subgroup. The fleet-average emission element is multiplied by local fuel sales to figure out pollutant exhausts. - Modal emissions-based models: In order to estimate effects associated with driving dynamics the modal operation of the vehicle and related emissions need to be reviewed. Modal emissions-based models connect emissions straight to the functioning mode of vehicles. The operating methods include sail, acceleration, deceleration, and idle. - Driving a car cycle-based versions: A driving a car cycles consists of a unique account of...

Recommendations: [1]. Ministry of Natural Methods and Environment, 2007, Countrywide State with the Environment 2007, Hanoi.

[2]. US. Environmental Protection Agency, 97, Procedures pertaining to Preparing Emission Factor Documents, USA.

[3]. Alper Unal, 2002, On-board Dimension and Research of On the road Vehicle Exhausts, North Carolina Condition University, UNITED STATES.

[4]. Le Anh Tuan, ain. al., 2009, Report with the project: Progress Hanoi real world driving pattern for bike and preliminary emission elements for motor bikes, code: 01C-09/05-2008-02, Hanoi School of Technology.

[5]. Jose Luis Jimenez – Palacios, 1999, Understanding and Quantifying Motor Vehicle Emissions with Vehicle Certain Power and TILDAS Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, UNITED STATES.

[6]. Lee Shipper, Tuan Votre Anh, ainsi que. al., 2008. Measuring the Invisible: Quantifying Emissions Savings From Transportation Solution, Hanoi Case Study, offered by http://www.wri.org/publication/measuring-the-invisible-hanoi, Globe Resources Company, USA.



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